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Select Clinical Studies since 2001

“As a physician, I want to see good science-backed by human clinical trials such as those listed below.  Human trials such as these give me confidence that metformin is safe and effective for most patients.”

– Dr. Belcea


  1. Metformin and body weight. article

  2. Metformin: Mechanisms in Human Obesity and Weight Loss. article

  3. Beneficial effects of metformin in normoglycemic morbidly obese adolescents. article

  4. Metformin and carbohydrate-modified diet: a novel obesity treatment protocol: preliminary findings from a case series of nondiabetic women with midlife weight gain and hyperinsulinemia. article

  5. Modulation of hunger by plasma glucose and metformin. article

  6. Randomized, controlled trial of metformin for obesity and insulin resistance in children and adolescents: improvement in body composition and fasting insulin. article

  7. Metformin treatment for four years to reduce total and visceral fat in low birth weight girls with precocious pubarche. article

  8. Addition of metformin to a lifestyle modification program in adolescents with insulin resistance. article

  9. Long-term safety, tolerability, and weight loss associated with metformin in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study. article

  10. Effectiveness of metformin on weight loss in non-diabetic individuals with obesity. article

  11. Metformin for Obesity in Prepubertal and Pubertal Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial. article

  12. The magnitude of weight loss induced by metformin is independently associated with BMI at baseline in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: Post-hoc analysis from data of a phase IV open-labeled trial. article

  13. The Effect of Eighteen-Month Metformin Treatment in Obese Adolescents: Comparison of Results Obtained in Daily Practice with Results from a Clinical Trial. article

  14. Long-term treatment with metformin in obese, insulin-resistant adolescents: results of a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. article

  15. Effect of metformin vs placebo on and metabolic factors in NCIC CTG MA.32. article

  16. Metformin for overweight women at midlife: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. article

  17. Metformin treatment to reduce central adiposity after prenatal growth restraint: a placebo-controlled pilot study in prepubertal children. article

  18. Efficacy of metformin in abdominal obesity. article

  19. Metformin in obese children and adolescents: the MOCA trial. article

  20. Effects of metformin on body weight and body composition in obese insulin-resistant children: a randomized clinical trial. article

  21. Metformin extended release treatment of adolescent obesity: a 48-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 48-week follow-up. article

  22. Pubertal metformin therapy to reduce total, visceral, and hepatic adiposity. article

  23. Effect of metformin on weight gain during antihypertensive treatment with a beta-blocker in Chinese patients. article

  24. Metformin in combination with structured lifestyle intervention improved body mass index in obese adolescents, but did not improve insulin resistance. article

  25. An RCT of metformin versus orlistat for the management of obese anovulatory women.  article

  26. The role of gut microbiota in obesity, diabetes mellitus, and effect of metformin: new insights into old diseases. article

  27. Metformin in the Management of Childhood Obesity: A Randomized Control Trial. article


  1. The effect of metformin use on hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in diabetes mellitus patients. article

  2. Metformin Prolongs Survival in Type 2 Diabetes Lung Cancer Patients With EGFR-TKIs. article

  3. Metformin influences drug sensitivity in pancreatic cancer cells. article

  4. Metformin exerts multitarget antileukemia activity in JAK2V617F-positive myeloproliferative neoplasms. article

  5. Survival impact and toxicity of metformin in head and neck cancer: An analysis of the SEER-Medicare dataset. article

  6. Metformin inhibits metastatic breast cancer progression and improves chemosensitivity by inducing vessel normalization via PDGF-B downregulation. article

  7. Metformin Enhances Nomegestrol Acetate Suppressing Growth of Endometrial Cancer Cells and May Correlate to Downregulating mTOR Activity In Vitro and In Vivo. article

  8. Meta-Analysis of Microarray Expression Studies on Metformin in Cancer Cell Lines. article

  9. Metformin and Colorectal Cancer - A Systematic Review. article

  10. The association between metformin therapy and risk of gynecological cancer in patients: Two meta-analyses. article

  11. Metformin exposure and survival in head and neck cancer: A large population-based cohort study. article

  12. Efficacy of oral metformin in a patient with metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma: Examination of mechanisms and therapeutic implications. article

  13. Metformin Prevents Peritoneal Dissemination via Immune-suppressive Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment. article

  14. Metformin and reduced risk of cancer in diabetic patients. article

  15. Anti-cancer activity of metformin: new perspectives for an old drug. article

  16. Metformin and Cancer Risk and Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis taking into account Biases and Confounders. article

  17. Metformin inhibits metastatic breast cancer progression and improves chemosensitivity by inducing vessel normalization via PDGF-B downregulation. article

  18. Metformin for chemoprevention of metachronous colorectal adenoma or polyps in post-polypectomy patients without diabetes: a multicentre double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised phase 3 trial. article

  19. Metformin effects on head and neck squamous carcinoma microenvironment: Window of opportunity trial. article

  20. Phase 2 Trial of Metformin Combined With 5-Fluorouracil in Patients With Refractory Metastatic Colorectal Cancer. article

  21. Phase I dose escalation study of temsirolimus in combination with metformin in patients with advanced/refractory cancers. article

  22. Measuring the biological effect of presurgical metformin treatment in endometrial cancer. article

  23. Effect of Metformin on Breast Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Proliferation in a Randomized Presurgical Trial. article

  24. Anti-diabetic doses of metformin decrease proliferation markers in tumors of patients with endometrial cancer. article

  25. Effects of metformin on endometrial cancer cell growth in vivo: a preoperative prospective trial. article

  26. Effect of metformin addition to an acute lymphoblastic leukemia chemotherapy treatment. article

  27. Presurgical trial of metformin in overweight and obese patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. article

  28. Metformin in early breast cancer: a prospective window of opportunity neoadjuvant study. article

  29. A phase I study of temsirolimus and metformin in advanced solid tumours. article

  30. Metformin suppresses colorectal aberrant crypt foci in a short-term clinical trial. article

  31. Effect of metformin on the survival of patients with ALL who express high levels of the ABCB1 drug resistance gene. article

  32. SPHK1 Is a Novel Target of Metformin in Ovarian Cancer. article

  33. Association of metformin use with ovarian cancer incidence and prognosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. article

  34. The therapeutic potential of metformin in gastric cancer. article


  1. Association between Metformin Use and Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. article

  2. Metformin prescription status and abdominal aortic aneurysm disease progression in the U.S. veteran population. article

  3. Metformin regulates metabolic and nonmetabolic pathways in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissues of older adults. article

  4. Metformin in patients with and without diabetes: a paradigm shift in cardiovascular disease management. article

  5. Metformin improves endothelial function in patients with metabolic syndrome. article

  6. Metformin improves endothelial vascular reactivity in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome and normal glucose tolerance. article

  7. Effects of metformin on microvascular function and exercise tolerance in women with angina and normal coronary arteries: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. article

  8. Lowering the threshold for defining microalbuminuria: effects of a lifestyle-metformin intervention in obese “normoalbuminuric” non-diabetic subjects. article

  9. Metformin, arterial function, intima-media thickness and nitroxidation in metabolic syndrome: the mefisto study. article

  10. Metformin and parameters of physical health. article

  11. A randomized controlled trial of metformin on left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with coronary artery disease without diabetes: the MET-REMODEL trial.  article

  12. Cardioprotection by Metformin: Beneficial Effects Beyond Glucose Reduction. article

  13. Lifestyle and metformin treatment favorably influence lipoprotein subfraction distribution in the Diabetes Prevention Program. article

  14. Effect of intensive lifestyle modification & metformin on cardiovascular risk in prediabetes: A pilot randomized control trial. article

  15. Effect of Long-Term Metformin and Lifestyle in the Diabetes Prevention Program and Its Outcome Study on Coronary Artery Calcium. article

  16. Effect of Metformin on Metabolites and Relation With Myocardial Infarct Size and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction After Myocardial Infarction. article

  17. Protective effect of metformin on myocardial injury in metabolic syndrome patients following percutaneous coronary intervention. article

  18. Short-term metabolic and cardiovascular effects of metformin in markedly obese adolescents with normal glucose tolerance. article

  19. Effects of 1-year treatment with metformin on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in non-diabetic upper-body obese subjects with mild glucose anomalies: a post-hoc analysis of the BIGPRO1 trial. article


  1. Metformin in the treatment of patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. article

  2. A phase 2 clinical trial of metformin as a treatment for non-diabetic paediatric non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. article

  3. Liver dysfunction in paediatric obesity: a randomized, controlled trial of metformin. article

  4. Metformin is effective in achieving biochemical response in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) not responding to lifestyle interventions. article

  5. Treatment options for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial. article

  6. Does metformin treatment influence bone formation in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease? article

  7. Metformin superior to low-fat diet for the treatment of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and/or steatohepatitis. article

  8. Clinical trial: pilot study of metformin for the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. article

  9. Metformin versus dietary treatment in nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis: a randomized study. article

  10. Treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with metformin versus lifestyle intervention in insulin-resistant adolescents. article


  1. ​Metformin, A New Era for an Old Drug in the Treatment of Immune Mediated Disease?article

  2. Metformin improves salivary gland inflammation and hypofunction in murine Sjögren’s syndrome. article

  3. Advances on the anti-inflammatory and protective effect of AMPK activators. article

  4. Effect of metformin combined with lifestyle modification versus lifestyle modification alone on proinflammatory-oxidative status in drug-naïve pre-diabetic and diabetic patients: A randomized controlled study. article

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Metformin Irrespective of Diabetes Status. article

  6. Metformin ameliorates the proinflammatory state in patients with carotid artery atherosclerosis through sirtuin 1 induction. article

  7. Metformin and Inflammation: Its Potential Beyond Glucose-lowering Effect. article

  8. The effects of metformin on inflammatory mediators in obese adolescents with insulin resistance: controlled randomized clinical trial. article

  9. Metformin inhibits the proliferation of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes through IGF-IR/PI3K/AKT/m-TOR pathway. article


  1. Long-Term Metformin Usage and Cognitive Function among Older Adults with Diabetes. article

  2. Metformin in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: results of a pilot randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. article

  3. Effects of the Insulin Sensitizer Metformin in Alzheimer Disease: Pilot Data From a Randomized Placebo-controlled Crossover Study. article

  4. Neuro-Protective Role of Metformin in Patients with Acute Stroke and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus via AMPK/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Signaling Pathway and Oxidative Stress. article


  1. The mechanism of aspirin combined with metformin induced apoptosis of thyroid cancer TPC-1 cells. article

  2. Metformin Decreases Thyroid Volume and Nodule Size in Subjects with Insulin Resistance: A Preliminary Study. article

  3. Metformin treatment for small benign thyroid nodules in patients with insulin resistance. article


  1. l-Carnitine plus metformin in clomiphene-resistant obese PCOS women, reproductive and metabolic effects: a randomized clinical trial. article

  2. Does metformin induce ovulation in normoandrogenic anovulatory women? article

  3. Relationship between abnormal glucose tolerance test and history of previous recurrent miscarriages, and beneficial effect of metformin in these patients: a prospective clinical study. article

  4. Effect of metformin therapy and dietary supplements on semen parameters in hyperinsulinaemic males. article

  5. Metformin improves semen characteristics of oligo-terato-asthenozoospermic men with metabolic syndrome. article


  1. Sexual Functioning and Depressive Symptoms in Women with Diabetes and Prediabetes Receiving Metformin Therapy: A Pilot Study. article

  2. Addition of metformin to sildenafil treatment for erectile dysfunction in eugonadal nondiabetic men with insulin resistance. A prospective, randomized, double-blind pilot study. article

  3. Effects of metformin and short-term lifestyle modification on the improvement of male hypogonadism associated with metabolic syndrome. article


  1. Metformin alleviates human cellular aging by upregulating the endoplasmic reticulum glutathione peroxidase 7. article

  2. Metformin as a Tool to Target Aging. article

  3. Significantly altered peripheral blood cell DNA methylation profile as a result of immediate effect of metformin use in healthy individuals. article

  4. Metformin improves putative longevity effectors in peripheral mononuclear cells from subjects with prediabetes. A randomized controlled trial. article

  5. Can people with type 2 diabetes live longer than those without? A comparison of mortality in people initiated with metformin or sulphonylurea monotherapy and matched, non-diabetic controls. article

  6. Reversal of epigenetic aging and immunosenescent trends in humans. article


  1. Impact of metformin on peak aerobic capacity. article

  2. Metformin improves performance in high-intensity exercise, but not anaerobic capacity in healthy male subjects. article

  3. Effect of Metformin on Handgrip Strength, Gait Speed, Myostatin Serum Level, and Health-related Quality of Life: A Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial among Non-diabetic Pre-frail Elderly Patients. article


  1. Efficacy of 1% Metformin Gel in Patients With Moderate and Severe Chronic Periodontitis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. article

  2. Efficacy of varying concentrations of subgingivally delivered metformin in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: a randomized controlled clinical trial. article


  1. Metformin Enhances Nomegestrol Acetate Suppressing Growth of Endometrial Cancer Cells and May Correlate to Downregulating mTOR Activity In Vitro and In Vivo. article

  2. The association between metformin therapy and risk of gynecological cancer in patients: Two meta-analyses. article

  3. A comparison between the effects of metformin and megestrol on simple endometrial hyperplasia. article

  4. Antiproliferative effect of metformin on the endometrium--a clinical trial. article

  5. The evaluation of the effect of metformin on breast fibrocystic disease. article


  1. The Common Antidiabetic Drug Metformin Reduces Odds of Developing Age-Related Macular Degeneration. article


  1. Metformin Increases Cortisol Regeneration by 11βHSD1 in Obese Men With and Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. article


  1. mTOR inhibition by metformin impacts monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation and cell death in gout: a prelude to a new add-on therapy? article

  2. Use of metformin (siofor) in patients with gout and insulin resistance (pilot 6-month results). article


  1. Renoprotective Effects of Metformin. article


  1. Metformin induces lipogenic differentiation in myofibroblasts to reverse lung fibrosis. article


  1. Metformin and gut microbiota: their interactions and their impact on diabetes. article

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